Vertical fusions. Mergers between buyers and sellers can improve cost savings and business synergies, which can lead to competitive prices for consumers. However, if the vertical transaction may have a negative effect on competition, since a competitor does not have access to supplies, the FTC may require certain provisions before the merger closes. For example, Valero Energy had to divest some companies and form an information protection system when it purchased a Terminator ethanol operator. Violation of the Sherman Act is a crime punishable by a fine of up to $10 million for businesses and a fine of up to $350,000 or 3 years imprisonment (or both) for individuals if the offence was committed before June 22. , 2004. If the offence was committed on June 22, 2004, the maximum fine of the Sherman Act is $100 million for businesses and $1 million for individuals, and the maximum prison sentence under the Sherman Act is 10 years. In certain circumstances, the maximum fine that may be imposed beyond the limits set by the Sherman Act may be increased by double the benefit or loss that results from it. In addition, agreements between competitors may constitute violations of the Postal or Wire Fraud Act, the False Testimony Act or other federal laws pursued by the Cartel Department. After this first screening, the suspect precepts should be analyzed on the following practices, which are often in favor of collusion: let`s take a quick look at the major antitrust laws in the United States. The core of U.S. cartel legislation was created by three statutes: the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890, the Federal Trade Commission Act – which also created the FTC – and the Clayton Antitrust Act.
One of the most well-known cases recently concerned Microsoft, which was convicted of committing anti-competitive and monopolizing acts by forcing its own web browsers on computers that had installed the Windows operating system. , pricing is an agreement to increase the price of a product or service on or a certain amount, z.B. all widget manufacturers accept a 5 percent price increase with effect on June 1. Other price-fixing events: Determining pricing activities: Pricing generally includes any agreement between competitors, manipulated prices or price levels, or conditions of sale (for example. (b) interest rates on consumer credit) for goods or services. In general, pricing involves an agreement between two or more competing producers of a competing good or supplier of a particular service in a given geographical area, in order to increase, fix or maintain the prices of their goods or services. It can take place either at the retail level or at the retail level and, although it does not have to involve all competitors in a given market, most competitors are generally involved in the relevant market. Horizontal territorial allocation is an agreement between competitors at the same level of distribution of a product or service, in order to solicit or transport customers only within a given geographical area. Competitors who accept such an agreement often refuse to have customers in another country`s territory. Both customer allocation schemes and territorial allocation schemes result in a lack of competition over prices and product selection for affected customers.
Price-fixing is an agreement between competitors to increase, fix or maintain the price at which their goods or services are sold. Competitors do not have to agree to charge exactly the same price, nor that any competitor in a given sector joins the conspiracy.