On a smaller scale, suppliers work under concession contracts awarded by local governments, businesses or other property owners. This activity may include restaurants and retail outlets at major airports, vendors at public fairs or the sale of food and beverage stalls in public parks. Within the European Union, the granting of concessions by public bodies is governed by a regulation. Work concessions have been subject to public procurement rules for some time, as the European Parliament and European Council`s 2004/18/EC Directive on Public Works Concession Contracts is applied and cross-border concessions on services are governed by the principles of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. However, on February 26, 2014, the European Parliament and the European Council have adopted a new 2014/23/EU directive on the awarding of concession contracts[4], which required EU Member States to implement national legislation for the awarding of concession contracts of more than EUR 5,186,000, which was awarded on or after 18 April 2016. Concession agreements can also be used to manage risk. Suppose a country invests a significant amount in the production of a single product. In this case, that country will have a particular high risk in terms of the price of that commodity. For example, the Brazilian and Mexican governments have invested heavily in state-owned oil companies. The value of their assets and income fell significantly when the price of oil fell in 2020. Countries that make concessions lose revenue from concession fees, but do not risk as much capital. The terms of a concession contract depend largely on his desire.

For example, a contract to operate a food concession in a popular stadium cannot offer much to the dealer in the kind of incentives. On the other hand, a government that wants to attract mining companies to an impoverished area could offer significant incentives. These incentives could include tax breaks and a lower royalty rate. An example of a high-level concession agreement is that between the French and British governments and private contractors The Channel Tunnel Group Ltd. and France-Manche S.A. for the operation of the Channel Tunnel. Ownership of the project property is retained by the Authority under a concession agreement, while the concessionaire receives only constructive ownership. Once the contract is terminated, all project resources are returned to the Authority.

Model concession agreements (MCAs) have played an important role in decouping the complexity of these transactions. Using a standardized form for concession agreements reduces unnecessary delays and transaction costs. It also simplifies the bidding process and inspires the confidence of bidders and financiers who invest in infrastructure development. In addition, compliance with WAB standards reduces the costs and risks of small governments and private parties carrying out small projects at the local level, as in most cases they do not have the same expertise as the agencies and forums that develop THE ETCs. Concession agreements are sometimes used to exploit other nations. For example, foreign countries and companies forced China to make various concessions in the 19th and early 20th centuries. These concessions have given foreign companies the right to develop and operate railways and ports within China. In addition, citizens of other countries have often appreciated extraterritoriality as part of their concessions. Extraterritoriality meant that foreign laws and tribunals settled disputes between Chinese and foreigners in concessions.